direct and indirect

Direct adalah kalimat langsung dan indirect adalah kalimat tidak langsung
Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses, struktur kalimat, pronoun (kata ganti orang), Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan), keterangan waktu, dan tempat.
Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what, why, where, when, who, how. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1, (-) not to infinitive/V1

Contoh Kalimat

Kalimat langsung/direct    Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect
(+) He said, “ I have a present for you in my car.”
(-)  He said, “I do not have a present for you in my car”
(?) He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my car?”
(?) He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my car?
(!) He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my car here now!”
(!) He ordered me, “Don’t bring your car here!”    (+) He said that he had a present for me in his
       car.
(-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his car.
(?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his car.
(?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his car.
(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.
(!) He ordered me not to bring my car there.

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